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L - Industrial Organization

Industrial Organization

JEL Code: 
L

Social Networks, Reputation and Commitment: Evidence from a Savings Monitors Experiment

We study whether individuals save more when information about their savings is shared with another village member (a “monitor”). We focus on whether the monitor’s effectiveness depends on her network position. Central monitors may be better able to disseminate information, and more proximate monitors may pass information to individuals who interact with the saver frequently. In 30 villages, we randomly assign monitors. Average monitors increase savings by 35%.

The Joy of Flying: Efficient Airport PPP Contracts

We examine the optimal concession contract for an infrastructure that generates both user fee revenue and ancillary commercial revenue. For example, airports charge user fees to passengers and airlines (aviation revenue) and collect revenue from shops, restaurants, parking lots and hotels (non-aviation revenue). While passenger flow and the demand for the infrastructure are exogenous, the demand for ancillary services depends both on exogenous passenger flow and on the concessionaire’s effort and diligence.

Network Centrality and Informal Institutions: Evidence from a Lab Experiment in the Field

While social closeness mitigates contractual incompleteness, we examine how communities can enlist third parties to improve cooperation between socially distant pairs. Network-central members may be particularly effective at this role through two channels: information and enforcement. We conduct modified trust games (with and without third parties) in 40 Indian villages to measure the effectiveness of central third parties. Assigning a punisher at the 75th percentile of the centrality distribution (versus the 25th) increases efficiency by 21%.

Foreign Direct Investment and Product Quality in Host Economies

This paper examines, both theoretically and empirically, how the presence of foreign-invested firms (i.e., foreign direct investment, FDI) affects the product quality of domestic firms. In a monopolistically competitive market with Melitz (2003) style heterogeneous firms, we show that, if consumers derive higher utility from consuming higher quality products, then despite the fact that product quality is not directly observable, one can identify the impact of FDI on product quality from its impact on firm revenue and cut-off capability.

Entrepreneurship, Small Businesses, and Economic Growth in Cities: An Empirical Analysis

Does entrepreneurship cause urban economic growth and if so how large is the impact? Empirical analysis of such question is hampered by endogeneity. This paper uses two different sets of variables – the homestead exemption levels in state bankruptcy laws from 1975 and the share of MSA overlaying aquifers - to instrument for entrepreneurship and examine urban growth between 1993 and 2002. Despite using different sets of instrumental variables, the ranges of 2SLS estimates are similar, further supporting the significant impact of entrepreneurship on urban growth.

Do Government Guaranteed Small Business Loans Promote Economic Growth and Entrepreneurship?

This paper examines the impact of government guaranteed small business loans on urban economic growth, and compares the growth impacts of government versus market financed entrepreneurship. OLS estimates indicate a significant and positive relation between the Small Business Administration’s guaranteed loans and metropolitan growth between 1993 and 2002. However, first-difference and instrumental variable regressions show no growth impact from government guaranteed loans. In contrast, market entrepreneurship significantly and positively contributes to local economic growth.

The Basic Public Finance of Public-Private Partnerships

Public-private partnerships (PPPs) cannot be justified because they free public funds. When PPPs are desirable because the private sector is more efficient, the contract that optimally trades demand risk, user-fee distortions and the opportunity cost of public funds is characterized by a minimum revenue guarantee and a cap on the firm’s revenues. Yet income guarantees and revenue sharing arrangements observed in practice differ fundamentally from those suggested by the optimal contract.

Dispute Resolution Mechanisms in the Telecom Sector: Relating International Practices to Indian Experience

This paper analyzes the impact of the changing telecom environment on the nature of disputes that arise in this sector. It focuses on the need to resolve disputes in an efficacious, expeditious and transparent manner to ensure unhindered growth of the telecom sector. The paper draws upon several country specific examples to show how this subject is receiving increasing attention and has in fact become a significant feature of regulatory initiative.

Innovative Firms or Innovative Owners? Determinants of Innovation in Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises

Innovation is key to technology adoption and creation, and to explaining the vast differences in productivity across and within countries. Despite the central role of the entrepreneur in the innovation process, data limitations have restricted standard analysis of the determinants of innovation to consideration of the role of firm characteristics. We develop a model of innovation which incorporates the role of both owner and firm characteristics, and use this to determine how product, process, marketing and organizational innovations should vary with firm size and competition.

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